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MIDS Capstone Project Summer 2019

HawkAI: Monitoring Road Accidents Real-time Using Deep Learning

Abstract: HawkAI detects motor-vehicle collisions using CCTV footage in real-time, using a combination of supervised and self-supervised machine learning techniques. HawkAI alerts traffic management centers when a collision has occurred so that they can immediately dispatch emergency services to the accident scene, thereby reducing emergency response times through real-time reporting and accurate incident location. Trained on Caltrans live traffic footage, HawkAI is an ML initiative paving the way for United Nations Sustainable Development Goal of reducing road-accident deaths by 50% till 2020. HawkAI also reduces information clutter at CCTV control rooms, prioritizing anomalous CCTV footage thereby improving agent throughput.with anomalies.


Key Highlights

Data

  • Almost 25K hours of live Caltran traffic CCTV footage recorded across 370+ cameras
  • 10% of recorded video content preprocessed into optical flow
  • More than 10K labelled video frames manually annotated for car collisions
  • Parsed 100K images through Google Vision API for semi-supervised tagging of events, crashes and glass to detect incidents. Cross-validation disappointed with 47% accuracy of detecting car accidents

Architecture

  • The analytics layer comprised of two learners:
    • Supervised classifier
    • Self-supervised anomaly detector
  • The serving layer comprised of a heatmap to monitor incidents real-time
  • For advanced use, a Big Query table records signals for custom application

Supervised Learning

  • Two binary classifiers are retrained on top of an Inception V3, using raw and preprocessed video frame inputs respectively
  • Preprocessing involved background subtraction and calculating optical flow 
  • While precision was impressive (+80%) for classifiers trained on raw images, recall rates (65%) were disappointing
  • In contrast, we found better recall rates with optical flow based classifiers, which also showcased the highest F1 score
  • Background subtraction performed poorly on both, precision and recall

Self-supervised Learning

  • A convolutional autoencoder was trained as an anomaly detector
  • By training to reconstruct a sequence of video frames, it was used to detect incidents based on reconstruction error
  • Frames with accidents had 4% higher reconstruction error than normal traffic activity
  • Currently, the anomaly detector tends to captures gaps in streaming
  • Identifying the right threshold to distinguish between normality and an anomaly is a challenge

Challenges

  • Initially, we used the YT8M feature extractor to quantize videos and cluster the derived latent vectors
  • Raw videos clustered based on time of day while optical flow versions clustered on intesity of traffic
  • Due to the scale of the data, the models were trained on a sample of the data collected. We believe there is opportunity to leverage the entire dataset more efficiently by managing data preprocessing more efficiently

Further Work: While supervised learning performance (especially recall) is linearly dependent on the labelled data set size, unsupervised learning offers the ability to scale without the overhead costs. We believe there is further work required in evaluating:

  • Reconstruction error thresholds: distance measures other than cosine similarity and euclidean need to be assessed
  • Hyperparameters: improve convolutional encoder performance by testing different loss functions and other hyperparameters
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Need

  • Improving response times can reduce car accident fatalities by 13%
  • 50 mn surveillance cameras in US
  • CCTV control room operators man 3-35 monitors each

Supervised Learning

  • Classifier on raw images showed 80% precision
  • In contrast, optical flow showed higher recall rates and overall F1 scores

    Self-supervised Anomaly Detector

    • Trained a CNN autoencoder on unlabelled frame sequences
    • Reconstruction errors 4% higher for frames involving car collisions

    Video

    Hawkai: in the wild

    Hawkai supervised learner

    Last updated:

    August 9, 2019